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World History Links

DOCUMENT-BASED ACTIVITIES FOR WORLD HISTORY: Using Primary Sources and the Internet




In order to find the links for your activity, consult the list below to find the appropriate subject.



Titles in this Series:

Related Title:

Document-Based Activities for U.S. History Series


Medieval Europe  

Lesson 1: Charlemagne

Einhard: The Life of Charlemagne
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/einhard.asp

The Monk of Saint Gall: The Life of Charlemagne, 883/4
http://www.fordham.edu/Halsall/basis/stgall-charlemagne.asp

Illuminated manuscript "The Coronation of Charlemagne"
http://publishing.cdlib.org/ucpressebooks/view?docId=ft8k4008jd&chunk.id=d0e5437&toc.depth=1&toc.id=d0e5379&brand=eschol&query=%22The+Coronation+of+Charlemagne%22

The Song of Roland
http://omacl.org/Roland/

Lesson 2: Feudalism: A Social and Political System

Feudal Oaths of Fidelity
article.web?article@Feudal_Oaths

Charter of Homage and Fealty, 1110
http://www.fordham.edu/Halsall/source/atton1.asp

French Book of Hours, the Trés Riches Heures
http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/rh/

French Book of Hours: March
http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/rh/img/march.jpg

French Book of Hours: August
http://www.ibiblio.org/wm/rh/img/august.jpg

Description of a Manor House
http://www.castlesandmanorhouses.com/manorhouses.htm

Lesson 3: The Crusades

Evolution of Crusader Privileges, 1095–1270
http://www.fordham.edu/Halsall/source/cde-privs.asp

Ekkehard of Aurach: On the Opening of the First Crusade
http://www.fordham.edu/Halsall/source/ekkehard-aur1.asp

Annales Herbipolenses, s.a. 1147: A Hostile View of the Crusade
http://www.socialstudies.com/article.web?article@Annales

Map of the Fourth Crusade and later Crusades
http://www.fordham.edu/Halsall/maps/4cde.jpg

Lesson 4: Magna Carta

Picture of the Magna Carta
http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/featured_documents/magna_carta/images/magna_carta.jpg

Text of the Magna Carta
http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/featured_documents/magna_carta/translation.html

Magna Carta and Its American Legacy
http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/featured_documents/magna_carta/legacy.html

The Bill of Rights
http://www.socialstudies.com/c/article.web?article@billofrights

"What Say the Reeds at Runnymede?"
http://www.britannia.com/history/kipling.html

Lesson 5: The Bubonic Plague

Introduction to Boccacio's Decameron
http://www.fordham.edu/Halsall/source/decameronintro.asp

Hans Holbein the Younger: The Dance of Death
http://web.archive.org/web/20071009191346/http://www.image.pe.ca/index/woodcut/holbien.html
  (Link is to an archive)

Mortality Rates in Florence 1348
http://www2.iath.virginia.edu/osheim/marchione.html

AIDS/HIV information
http://www.avert.org/

Plague Simulation
http://web.archive.org/web/20080513070539/http://www.mcn.org/ed/CUR/cw/Plague/Plague_Sim.html
(Link is to an archive)

Related websites:

Medieval Sourcebook
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/sbook.asp

History On-line
http://www.history.ac.uk/history-online/

Historical Maps Collection
http://cartographic-images.net/Cartographic_Images/201.1_Examples_of_Macrobius_Maps.html

Overview of the History of Charlemagne
http://web.archive.org/web/20100605132034/http://www.vanderbilt.edu/Blair/Courses/MUSL242/f98/charles.htm

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Renaissance Art & Archictecture  

Lesson 1: Leonardo da Vinci and Renaissance Painting

The Miracle of the Thirsty Man: Giotto
http://www.christusrex.org/www1/francis/SSF-thirsty-l.jpg

Mona Lisa: Leonardo
http://www.theartwolf.com/masterworks/masterworks/1505_leonardo_mona_lisa.jpg

The Life of Leonardo da Vinci: Giorgio Vasari, 1550
http://www.fordham.edu/Halsall/source/vasari1.html

The Last Supper: Leonardo
http://www.artchive.com/artchive/L/leonardo/lastsupp.jpg.html

Lesson 2: Renaissance Gardens

The Enchanted Gardens of the Renaissance
http://www.bergerfoundation.ch/Jardin/index_english.html

The Sacred Grove, The Monsters' Grove, Bomarzo Garden
http://www.bergerfoundation.ch/Jardin/bois-sacre_english.html

Villa Lante—Bagnaia Garden
http://www.bergerfoundation.ch/Jardin/jardin-bagnaia_english.html

Villa d'Este's Tivoli Garden
http://www.bergerfoundation.ch/Jardin/tivoli-intro_english.html

Lesson 3: Art and Religion United: Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel

Glossary
http://www.wga.hu/database/glossary/glossar3.html

The Web Gallery of Art—Visit to the Sistine Chapel
http://www.wga.hu/tours/sistina/index.html

The Ceiling Frescoes
http://www.wga.hu/tours/sistina/index_c.html

The Creation of Adam
http://www.wga.hu/frames-e.html?/html/m/michelan/3sistina/1genesis/6adam/06_3ce6.html

Prophets and Sybils
http://www.wga.hu/tours/sistina/index4.html

The Last Judgment
http://www.wga.hu/tours/sistina/index_d.html

Lesson 4: Brunelleschi and the Dome of the Cathedral of Florence

Lives of the Artists: Giorgio Vasari, 1550
http://www.fordham.edu/Halsall/basis/vasari/vasari5.htm

The Dome of the Cathedral of Florence: Exterior View
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Santa_Maria_del_Fiore.jpg

The Pantheon, Rome: Exterior View
https://web.archive.org/web/20100630103959/http://wings.buffalo.edu/AandL/Maecenas/pantheon/pan1_intro/ac880931.jpg
Link is to an archive

The Dome of the Cathedral of Florence: Interior View
http://www.virtourist.com/europe/florence/images/05.jpg

The Pantheon, Rome: Interior View
http://www.sacred-destinations.com/italy/rome-pantheon-photos/

Geometry of the Dome
http://brunelleschi.imss.fi.it/genscheda.asp?appl=LIR&indice=63&xsl=modello&lingua=ENG&chiave=100510

Innovative Engineers of the Renaissance
http://brunelleschi.imss.fi.it/ingrin/

Brunelleschi's Secret in Constructing the Cupola of the Florence Cathedral
http://web.archive.org/web/19981207051555/vps.it/propart/mricci.htm
  (Link is to an archive)

Lesson 5: English Renaissance Poetry

Christopher Marlowe, "The Passionate Shepherd to His Love"
http://www.rjgeib.com/thoughts/shepherd/shepherd.html

Sir Walter Raleigh, "The Nymph's Reply to the Shepherd"
http://www.luminarium.org/renlit/nymphsreply.htm

Edmund Spenser, "From Amoretti" (Sonnet 30)
http://www.poetryfoundation.org/poem/174456

William Shakespeare, Sonnet 18
http://www.albionmich.com/inspiration/shallicompare.html

William Shakespeare, Sonnet 116
http://www.albionmich.com/valentine.html

Elizabeth I: Biography
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/tudors/elizabeth_i_01.shtml

"When I Was Fair and Young" (attributed to Elizabeth I)
http://www.luminarium.org/renlit/wheniwasfair.htm

Passions in Poetry: Sir Walter Raleigh
http://www.netpoets.com/classic/biographies/051000.htm

Related websites:

Geocentric vs. Heliocentric: Theory Comparison Study Sheet
http://www.chabotcollege.edu/faculty/shildreth/astronomy/geo.html

Geocentric Theory
http://abyss.uoregon.edu/~js/glossary/geocentric_theory.html

Innovative Engineers of the Renaissance—Brunelleschi
http://brunelleschi.imss.fi.it/ingrin/

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Renaissance Politics & Economics  

Lesson 1: Petrarch

Francis Petrarch: To Posterity Letters
http://petrarch.petersadlon.com/read_letters.html?s=pet01.html

Francis Petrarch: Selections from his Correspondences
http://history.hanover.edu/early/petrarch.html

Hanover (Indiana) College Historical Texts Project
http://history.hanover.edu/project.html

Francis Petrarch: Letter to Cicero 1
http://history.hanover.edu/texts/petrarch/pet09.html

Francis Petrarch: Letter to Cicero 2
http://history.hanover.edu/texts/petrarch/pet11.html

Lesson 2: Lorenzo de Medici

Medieval Sourcebook: Lorenzo de Medici: Paternal Advice To A Cardinal
http://www.fordham.edu/Halsall/source/lorenzomed1.asp

Biographical information on Lorenzo de Medici
http://www.lucidcafe.com/library/96jan/lorenzo.html

Lesson 3: Machiavelli's The Prince

Chapter 17 of The Prince
http://www.socialstudies.com/article.web?article@Prince_Chapter17

Entire text of the The Prince
http://www.gutenberg.org/files/1232/1232-h/1232-h.htm
Or: http://www.socialstudies.com/article.web?article@The_Prince

The Declaration of Independence: A Transcription
http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/declaration_transcript.html

Lesson 4: Marco Polo

Medieval Sourcebook: Marco Polo: The Glories of Kinsay [Hangchow]
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/polo-kinsay.asp

Medieval Internet Sourcebook
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/sbook.asp

Lesson 5: Christopher Columbus: Admiral of the Ocean Seas

Christopher Columbus: Extracts from Journal
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/columbus1.asp
Link is to an archive

Biographical resource on Columbus
http://www.top-biography.com/9015-Christopher%20Columbus

Related websites:

The Annenberg/CPB Renaissance Exhibits collection
http://www.learner.org/interactives/renaissance/

Medieval/Renaissance Food Homepage
http://www.pbm.com/~lindahl/food.html

A Guide to Medieval and Renaissance Instruments
http://www.music.iastate.edu/antiqua/instrumt.html

The Medieval Internet Sourcebook: Renaissance
http://www.fordham.edu/Halsall/sbook1x.asp

"Rome Reborn: The Vatican Library & Renaissance Culture"
https://www.loc.gov/exhibits/vatican/vatican.html

The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy
http://www.gutenberg.org/files/2074/2074-h/2074-h.htm

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Medieval China  

Lesson 1: Politics in Medieval China

Reproduction of Cell Used by Students Taking the Imperial Exams
http://bhoffert.faculty.noctrl.edu/HST261/ExamSystem.Cell.jpg

Background Information:

Tang Dynasty
http://www.paulnoll.com/China/Dynasty/dynasty-08-Tang.html

Confucian Exams

Link is to an archive

Sung Dynasties
https://web.archive.org/web/20071021024102/http://library.thinkquest.org/12255/library/dynasty/sung.html?tqskip1=1&tqtime=0826
Link is to an archive

Lesson 2: Buddhism

The Longmen Grottoes, Hene Province, China
http://gochina.about.com/od/zhengzhou/p/Longmen.htm

The Crowned Buddha at the Southern Leigutaidong Cave
http://www.miho.or.jp/english/member/shangrila/vol8/eshan8_2.htm

Background Information:

Five Minute Introduction to Buddha
http://www.buddhanet.net/e-learning/5minbud.htm

A History of Chinese Buddhism
http://web.archive.org/web/20070304205701/http://villa.lakes.com/cdpatton/Buddha/
  (Link is to an archive)

Longmen Grottoes
This page is no longer available.

Thomas Jefferson Memorial (for comparison)
http://www.nps.gov/thje/index.htm

Abraham Lincoln Memorial (for comparison)
http://www.nps.gov/linc/index.htm

Lesson 3: The Invention of Block Printing

Image of the Diamond Sutra
http://www.rightreading.com/printing/gutenberg.asia/images/Diamond-Sutra.jpg

English Translation of the Diamond Sutra
http://community.palouse.net/lotus/diamond1-5.htm

Background Information:

Block Printing
http://web.archive.org/web/20091214123356/http://www.fathom.com/feature/122327/
Link is to an archive
https://web.archive.org/web/20070422121321/http://www.wavespring.com/justin/china/printing.html
Link is to an archive


The Diamond Sutra
http://www.silk-road.com/artl/diamondsutra.shtml

Lesson 4: A Golden Age of Chinese Poetry

"Alone in her Beauty" by Du Fu
http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/chinese/tangeng.html

Background Information on the "Golden Age of Arts and Literature": Lesson 5: Linking Medieval China to Modern China through Art

Mau Yuan's Sung Dynasty work "Riding a Dragon"
http://www.npm.gov.tw/exhbition/song/english/art/selections.htm

Chen Haiqiang's 2001 work "Last Pray for the Living Environment"
Page no longer available. Some of the artist's works can be found at:
http://web.archive.org/web/20020923231702/http://www.chinese-art.com/Contemporary/volumefourissue5/images/125/shanghai/bianyuan/chenhaiqiang.jpg

Background Information on Medieval Chinese Art and Modern Chinese Art: Related websites:

Art and the Culture of the Sung Dynasty
http://www.npm.gov.tw/exhbition/song/english/cson0003.htm

Chinese Dynasties
http://www.artsmia.org/art-of-asia/history/chinese-dynasty-guide.cfm

A Universal Guide for China Studies
This page is no longer available.

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Shogun Japan  

Lesson 1: The Politics of Tokugawa Shogun Japan

Kawasaki: A Military Checkpoint
http://www.us-japan.org/edomatsu/Kawasaki/frame.html

"Questioned in detail" illustration
http://www.us-japan.org/edomatsu/Kawasaki/kowtow.jpg

Background on Tokugawa Ieyasu and the political structure of Tokugawa Shogun Japan: Lesson 2: The Samurai

Samurai Quotations
https://web.archive.org/web/20100823214441/http://victorian.fortunecity.com/duchamp/410/quotes.html

Background on the social hierarchy of Shogun Japan and on the role of the samurai: Lesson 3: The Kabuki Theater

Photographs of scenes from Kanadehon Chushingura
http://www.bookmice.net/darkchilde/japan/asahi/kabuki3.jpg

Background on the Kabuki Theater and on Kanadehon Chushingura: Lesson 4: Ukiyo-e Artists

Woodcut by Toyokuni I depicting Act III from Chushingara
http://collection.spencerart.ku.edu/eMuseumPlus?service=ExternalInterface&module=collection&objectId=7337&viewType=detailView
Or try this page (Link is to an archive).

Woodcut by Hiroshige depicting "Scene XI, The Raid" from Chushingara
http://collection.spencerart.ku.edu/eMuseumPlus?service=ExternalInterface&module=collection&objectId=7171&viewType=detailView
Or try this page (Link is to an archive).

Background on Ukiyo-e Art
http://www.viewingjapaneseprints.net/texts/ukiyoe/intro_ukiyoe.html
http://web.archive.org/web/20060219174812/http://www.cjn.or.jp/ukiyo-e/arts-index.html
  (Link is to an archive)

Chushingara Prints
http://www.dartmouth.edu/~ukiyoe/chushingura/index.html
http://web.archive.org/web/20101111204327/http://www.spencerart.ku.edu/collection/print/chushin/index.shtml

Lesson 5: The Treaty of Kanagawa

Treaty of Kanagawa
http://avalon.law.yale.edu/19th_century/japan002.asp

Background on the international trade with Japan: Related websites:

A Virtual Tour of Edo, Japan
http://www.us-japan.org/edomatsu/

The Tokugawa Art Museum
http://www.tokugawa-art-museum.jp/english/index.html

Viewing Japanese Prints
http://www.viewingjapaneseprints.net/index.html

Schauwecker's Guide to Japan
http://www.japan-guide.com/

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The Rise and Spread of Islam (600–1200) 

Lesson 1: Muhammad's Last Sermon

The Prophet Muhammad's Last Sermon
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/muhm-sermon.asp

Jesus's Last Sermon (John 13–16)
http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/toc/modeng/public/KjvJohn.html

Buddah's Last Sermon
http://web.archive.org/web/20060822154236/http://home.flash.net/~cameron/texts/parinirv.html
  (Link is to an archive)

Lesson 2: Four Accounts of the Battle of Tours (Poitièrs)

Medieval Sourcebook: Arabs, Franks, and the Battle of Tours, 732: Three Accounts
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/732tours.asp

Medieval Sourcebook: Anon Arab Chronicler: The Battle of Poitièrs, 732
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/arab-poitiers732.asp

Lesson 3: Comparing Muslim and Christian Views about the Conquest and Reconquest of Jerusalem

Maps and the History of Jerusalem
http://usm.maine.edu/maps/exhibition/1/1/sub-/maps-and-the-history-of-jerusalem

HIEROSOLIMA, first map of Jerusalem
http://usm.maine.edu/maps/exhibition/1/1/sub-/maps-and-the-history-of-jerusalem
  Scroll to Hierosolima

The Capture of Jerusalem by Saladin, 1187
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/1187saladin.asp

Some Medieval Accounts of Salah al-Din's Recovery of Jerusalem (Al-Quds)
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/med/salahdin.asp

Lesson 4: Medieval Muslim Life Revealed in The Rubiayat by Omar Khayyám

Omar Khayyam: The Rubaiyat, c. 1120 CE
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/omarkhayyam-fitz2.asp

Lesson 5: Medieval Islamic Religious Architecture

Religious Architecture and Islamic Cultures
http://web.mit.edu/4.614/www/schedule.html

Related websites:

A Brief Chronology of Muslim History
http://www.barkati.net/english/chronology.htm

Introduction to Islamic Beliefs and Practices
http://www.ilaam.net/Brochures/Brochure-31.html

Introduction to the Articles and Pillars of Islam
http://www.missionislam.com/discover/introduction.htm

Islam 101
http://www.islam101.com/

IslamiClip Arabic Islamic Clip Art
http://www.sakkal.com/IslamiClip1.html

The Metropolitan Museum of Art—The Collection: Islamic Art (Introduction)
http://www.metmuseum.org/about-the-museum/museum-departments/curatorial-departments/islamic-art

Islam: Empire of Faith-Educational Resources (PBS)
http://www.pbs.org/empires/islam/lesson2b.html

The Ten Commandments
http://whitestonejournal.com/the-ten-commandments/

Understanding Islam and Muslims
http://www.islamicity.com/education/understandingislamandmuslims/?AspxAutoDetectCookieSupport=1

Welcome to Isfahan!
http://www.isfahan.org.uk/

Women in Islam
http://web.archive.org/web/20110722003638/http://www.islamfortoday.com/women.htm

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The Industrial Revolution  

Lesson 1: Inventions

Photograph of Hand Loom
http://www.spartacus-educational.com/handloom.jpg

Photograph of Power Loom
http://www.cleo.net.uk/followtheyarn/timeline/images/manup_loom_tn.jpg

Leeds Woollen Workers Petition, 1786
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1786machines.asp

Letter from Leeds Cloth Merchants, 1791
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1791machines.asp

Background On Inventors During the Industrial Revolution
http://www.ideafinder.com/history/inventors/watt.htm
http://web.archive.org/web/20110112060704/http://www.history.rochester.edu/steam/marshall/
http://www.spartacus-educational.com/IRarkwright.htm
http://www.spartacus-educational.com/SCcartwright.htm

Lesson 2: The Luddites

"The Hand-Loom Weavers' Lament"
http://unionsong.com/u775.html

Lord Byron, speech in the House of Lords (27th February, 1812)
http://www.mykeep.com/lordbyron/speechlords.html

Background on Luddites
http://town.hall.org/radio/LuddLand/whatsa.html

Lesson 3: Railways

First-person narrative by Fanny Kemble
http://www.spartacus-educational.com/RAkemble.htm

Graphs of the Spread of Railways in 19th Century
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/INDREV6.asp

Background on Railways
http://www.spartacus-educational.com/railways.htm
http://www.spartacus-educational.com/RAbourne.htm

Lesson 4: Child Labor and Living Conditions

Chadwick's Report on Sanitary Conditions
http://www.victorianweb.org/history/chadwick2.html

The Sadler Committee's Report on Child Labor in England - 1832
http://web.archive.org/web/20030215014332/http://www.cwrl.utexas.edu/~benjamin/316kfall/316kunit2/studentprojects/group2/sadler.html
  (Link is to an archive)

Background on Child Labor in Great Britain
http://www.victorianweb.org/history/hist8.html

Lesson 5: The Great Exhibition of 1851

Drawings of the Crystal Palace
http://www.vanderbilt.edu/AnS/english/Clayton/318visual_1851.htm
Click here to go straight to Western Entrance of the Great Exhibit
Click here to go straight to South Exterior of the Crystal Palace


Sermons preached by Reverend George Clayton
http://www.victorianweb.org/history/1851/clayton.html

Background on the Great Exhibition of 1851
http://www.victorianweb.org/history/1851/crystal1.html
http://myweb.tiscali.co.uk/speel/otherart/grtexhib.htm
http://www.victorianweb.org/history/1851/1851ov.html


Related websites:

Discover School: Industrial Revolution
http://web.archive.org/web/20011214010901/http://school.discovery.com/homeworkhelp/worldbook/atozhistory/i/275880.html
  (Link is to an archive)

The Victorian Web
http://www.victorianweb.org/

The Industrial Revolution Lecture
http://www.ecology.com/2011/09/18/ecological-impact-industrial-revolution/

Kid Info Reference Resource: Industrial Revolution
http://www.kidinfo.com/American_History/Industrial_Revolution.html

The Internet Modern History Sourcebook: Industrial Revolution
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/modsbook14.asp

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World War I  

Lesson 1: A Snapshot of History: The Willy-Nicky Letters

The "Willy-Nicky" Telegrams
http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/The_Willy-Nicky_Telegrams

Lesson 2: The Arming of the Earth and the Advent if Modern War

The Role of Cavalry in Warfare
http://web.archive.org/web/19980205091530/http://www.hillsdale.edu/dept/History/courses/469/IndWar/1895-cavalry.htm
  (Link is to an archive)
Photos in lesson:
http://web.archive.org/web/20080324124333/www.gwpda.org/photos/animals.htm#horses
  (Link is to an archive)
http://web.archive.org/web/20070419233134/http://www.gwpda.org/photos/bin03/imag0284.jpg
  (Link is to an archive)
Photos from the Great War
http://www.gwpda.org/photos/

The Dragon and the Undying
http://www.potw.org/archive/potw240.html

In Flanders Field
http://www.arlingtoncemetery.net/flanders.htm

Lesson 3: Great War Propaganda

Trenches on the Web: Posters from the Great War
http://www.worldwar1.com/posters.htm

"They Shall Not Pass" poster
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6d/On_Ne_Passe_Pas_1918.jpg

"Are YOU in this?" poster
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/86/'Are_you_in_this'_poster.jpg

World War I Posters in the Hyder Collection
http://web.archive.org/web/20060622195532/http://tarlton.law.utexas.edu/hyder/posters/
  (Link is to an archive)

Lesson 4: American Isolationism Shattered

The First Lusitania Note to Germany
http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/Wilson%27s_First_Lusitania_Note_to_Germany

The Zimmerman Telegram
http://www.archives.gov/global-pages/larger-image.html?i=/education/lessons/zimmermann/images/decoded-message-l.jpg&c=/education/lessons/zimmermann/images/decoded-message.caption.html

Lesson 5: The Treaty of Versailles: The League of Nations

Woodrow Wilson: The League of Nations
http://www.socialstudies.com/c/article.web?article@wilson-league

The Senate and the League of Nations
http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/disp_textbook.cfm?smtID=3&psid=3909

Political Cartoon
http://www.socialstudies.com/c/article.web?article@alltiedup

Related websites:

The World War I Document Archive
http://wwi.lib.byu.edu/index.php/Main_Page

PBS on the Great War
http://www.pbs.org/greatwar/

The Complete Text of the Treaty of Versailles
http://net.lib.byu.edu/~rdh7/wwi/versailles.html

League of Nations: A Chronology
http://worldatwar.net/timeline/other/league18-46.html

The Center for Legislative Archives
http://www.archives.gov/legislative/cla/index.html

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World War II  

Lesson 1: Appeasement

"Peace for Our Time" statement by Neville Chamberlain
http://eudocs.lib.byu.edu/index.php/Neville_Chamberlain%27s_%22Peace_For_Our_Time%22_speech

The British Parliamentary Debate on the Munich Agreement
https://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/munich.htm

Map of Czechoslovakia showing the Sudetenland
http://www.humboldt.edu/rescuers/book/Chlup/chlupgif/czechmap2.html

Lesson 2: The Battle of Britain

"Their Finest Hour": Churchill's address to the House of Commons of June 18, 1940
http://www.historyplace.com/speeches/churchill-hour.htm

Winston S. Churchill
https://www.winstonchurchill.org/the-life-of-churchill/life

FDR's request for a declaration of war against Japan after the attack on Pearl Harbor
http://www.ibiblio.org/pha/7-2-188/188-31.html
Click here for the audio version

Lesson 3: The Nazi-Soviet Non-Agression Treaty/Operation Barbarossa

Treaty of Non-Aggression Between Germany and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/nonagres.asp

Molotov: Reaction to German Invasion of 1941
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1941molotov.html

Map of the movements of Hitler's armies
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/92/P23(map).jpg

Lesson 4: D-Day

A letter about D-Day by Robert Walker, an American soldier
http://web.archive.org/web/20030909152224/http://www.britannica.com/normandy/pri/Q00273.html
  (Link is to an archive)

Account of D-Day by war correspondent Ernie Pyle
http://web.archive.org/web/20030124064856/http://www.britannica.com/normandy/pri/Q00233.html
  (Link is to an archive)

Normandy: 1944
http://kids.britannica.com/kids/article/D-Day/476249

Map of Normandy Invasion (June 6, 1944)
http://media.web.britannica.com/eb-media/55/47755-004-E8C80B6B.gif

News coverage of the Gulf War (1991)
http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/inatl/longterm/fogofwar/fogofwar.htm

Lesson 5: The Firebombing of Dresden

The Fire-bombing of Dresden: An eye-witness account
http://timewitnesses.org/english/~lothar.html

"Before" Photograph of Dresden
http://www.churchill-society-london.org.uk/Prewar.Jpeg

"After" Photograph of Dresden
http://www.churchill-society-london.org.uk/Dresden.gif

"After" Photographs of Hiroshima
http://web.archive.org/web/20040422174104/http://pegasus.phys.saga-u.ac.jp/peace1e.html
  (Link is to an archive)

Map of the Eastern front at the end of World War II
http://web.archive.org/web/20070406163828/http://baby.indstate.edu/gga/gga_cart/ww_feb45.jpg
  (Link is to an archive)

"Old City Bombed to Hell" 1995 AP story about Dresden
http://www.nizkor.org/ftp.cgi?places/germany/dresden/press/dresden.001

Culminating Activities:

Talk Show Framework and Rubric
http://web.archive.org/web/20080713185808/http://www.pbs.org/pov/pov1999/wellfoundedfear/questions/lesson1.php3
  (Link is to an archive)

Resources for comparing the Battle of Britain and the bombing of Dresden: Related websites:

The World at War
http://www.euronet.nl/users/wilfried/ww2/ww2.htm

WWII Documents
https://web.archive.org/web/20141007215403/https://www.mtholyoke.edu/acad/intrel/ww2.htm
Link is to an archive

Life and Times of Winston Churchill
http://www.winstonchurchill.org/

The Battle of Stalingrad
http://web.archive.org/web/20031016052023/http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/background/52495.stm
  (Link is to an archive)

WWII Codes and Ciphers
http://www.codesandciphers.org.uk/

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The Holocaust  

Lesson 1: The Wannsee Conference

Wannsee protocol
http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Wannsee_Protocol

Lesson 2: The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising

Mordecai Anielewicz's last letter to Yitzhak (Antek) Zuckerman, April 23, 1943
http://web.archive.org/web/20040404143502/http://motlc.wiesenthal.org/exhibits/dignitydefiance/13.html
  (Link is to an archive)

Photograph of man lying dead in Warsaw photo
http://remember.org/courage/photo2.html

Extract from a Report by the "Delegatura" to London on the Warsaw Ghetto Revolt
http://www.yadvashem.org/odot_pdf/Microsoft%20Word%20-%20583.pdf

Lesson 3: Life in Concentration Camps

Interview in which concentration camp survivor "Helen L." talks about her experiences in a concentration camp
http://www.remember.org/witness/wit.sur.lazar.html

Paintings and drawings of Jan Komski
http://www.remember.org/komski/index.html
Click here to go straight to "Appell" (Role Call): A Painting by Jan Komski

Lesson 4: Liberators and "Righteous Gentiles"

Raoul Wallenberg
http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/article.php?lang=en&ModuleId=10005211

"Tell us who were there that it never happened"—General Felix Sparks
http://www.remember.org/witness/sparks.html

1st. Lt. William Cowling: Report from the Dachau Liberation
http://www.remember.org/witness/cowling.html

Lesson 5: The Nuremberg Trials

Nuremberg Trial Proceedings Vol. 1: Charter of the International Military Tribunal
http://avalon.law.yale.edu/imt/imtconst.asp

Nuremberg Trial Proceedings Vol. 1: Indictment
http://avalon.law.yale.edu/imt/count.asp

Judgment of the International Military Tribunal for the Trial of German Major War Criminals
http://avalon.law.yale.edu/subject_menus/judcont.asp

Famous Trials
http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/ftrials.htm

Related websites:

Cybrary of the Holocaust
http://www.remember.org/

Holocaust Pictures Exhibition
http://www.phdn.org/histgen/schmitz/indexeng.html

The Nizkor Project
http://nizkor.org/

Simon Wiesenthal Center
http://www.wiesenthal.com

The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum: Education
http://www.ushmm.org/education/

Yad Vashem
http://www.yadvashem.org/

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The Enlightenment  

Lesson 1: Progress and Perfectibility: Condorcet

Condorcet: The Future Progress of the Human Mind
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/condorcet-progress.asp

Lesson 2: Society and Government: Locke, Rousseau, the "State of Nature," and the Social Compact

"Of the State of Nature," Chapter 2 of John Locke's An Essay concerning the true original, extent and end of civil Government (1690)
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1690locke-sel.asp

Jean Jacques Rousseau: The Social Contract, 1763
http://www.fordham.edu/Halsall/mod/rousseau-contract2.asp

Lesson 3: The Powers of Government: Montesquieu

Montesquieu: The Spirit of the Laws, 1748
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/montesquieu-spirit.asp

Lesson 4: Deism: Paine and Jefferson

Thomas Paine: "Of the Religion of Deism Compared with the Christian Religion"
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/paine-deism.asp

Thomas Jefferson's letter to Benjamin Rush
http://www.angelfire.com/co/JeffersonBible/jeffbsyl.html

"The Spacious Firmament" by Joseph Addison
http://www.poemhunter.com/poem/the-spacious-firmament-on-high/

Lesson 5: The Rights of Women

Daniel Defoe: "(On) The Education Of Women, 1719"
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1719defoe-women.asp

"The Prevailing Opinion of a Sexual Character Discussed," Chapter II from Mary Wollstonecraft's A Vindication of the Rights of Woman
http://www.bartleby.com/144/2.html

"Seneca Falls Declaration" by Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1848)
http://www.socialstudies.com/c/article.web?article@senecafalls_declaration

John Stuart Mill's On the Subjection of Women (1869)
http://www.constitution.org/jsm/women.htm

Related websites:

Rousseau Association
http://rousseauassociation.ish-lyon.cnrs.fr/

John Locke Resources
http://www.libraries.psu.edu/tas/locke/

Shaping of the Modern World: The Enlightenment
http://web.archive.org/web/20070312143456/http://www.yeditepe.edu.tr/7tepe/humanities/HUMANITIES_5.pdf
(Link is to a pdf file from an archive)

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The French Revolution  

Lesson 1: The Three Estates

Political Cartoon on the Three Estates
http://www.historywiz.com/oldregime.htm

"What Is the Third Estate?": Abbe Sieyes
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/sieyes.asp

Lesson 2: The Storming of the Bastille

A newspaper account of the fall of the Bastille
http://thecaveonline.com/APEH/frrevdocuments.html#anchorbatille

Lesson 3: The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen

The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen (1789)
http://avalon.law.yale.edu/18th_century/rightsof.asp

The English Bill of Rights (1689)
http://avalon.law.yale.edu/17th_century/england.asp

Lesson 4: The Reign of Terror

Maximilien Robespierre:"Justification of the Use of Terror"
http://www.fordham.edu/Halsall/mod/robespierre-terror.asp

St. Just: excerpts from Republican Institutes
http://history.hanover.edu/courses/excerpts/111just.html

Minh's Vietnamese Declaration of Independence
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1945vietnam.html

Lesson 5: Executions

French Revolution execution picture
http://web.archive.org/web/19990220005826/http://members.aol.com/agentmess/picts/killing.jpg
  (Link is to an archive)

Marie Antoinette: Letter to Her Mother, 1773
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1773marieantonette.asp

Edmund Burke: The Death of Marie Antoinette
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1793burke.asp

La Marseillaise: The French National Anthem
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/MARSEILL.asp

Related websites:

Internet Modern History Sourcebook: French Revolution
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/modsbook13.html

Liberty, Equality, Fraternity: Exploring the French Revolution
http://chnm.gmu.edu/revolution/

HistoryWiz: French Revolution
http://www.historywiz.com/frenchrev.htm

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Imperialism 

Lesson 1: "The White Man's Burden"

"The White Man's Burden" poem
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/Kipling.asp

"The Brown Man's Burden" poem
http://www.socialstudies.com/c/article.web?article@brown-burden

British Imperialistic Anthems: Rule Britannia
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/rulebritannia.asp

Lesson 2: The Economics of Imperialism

Paul Leroy-Beaulieu on the Desirability of Imperialism, 1891
https://splashmans.wikispaces.com/Readings+on+the+Economics+of+Imperialism

John Hobson: Imperialism, 1902
http://www.fordham.edu/halsal

Lesson 3: The Missionary of Impulse

Dr. David Livingstone: Excerpt from Missionary Travels and Research in South Africa
http://www.socialstudies.com/c/article.web?article@livingstone

The British Missionary Letters Urging the Annexation of the South Sea Islands
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1883hebrides.asp

Josiah Strong on Anglo-Saxon Predominance, 1891
http://www.socialstudies.com/c/article.web?article@josiah-strong

Lesson 4: Indigenous Responses to Imperialism

The People of Canton: Against the English, 1842
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1842canton.asp

Dadabhai Naoroji: "The Benefits of British Rule"
http://faculty.laverne.edu/~marcusk/19th%20cent%20europe/naoroji,%20benefits%20of%20british%20rule.htm

Lesson 5: International Competition

The Earl of Cromer: Why Britain Acquired Egypt in 1882
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1908cromer.html

"The John Bull Octopus in Egypt" cartoon
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:English_imperialism_octopus.jpg

Program of the Pan-German League, 1890–1898
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1890pangerman.asp

Related websites:

"The White Man's Burden" and Its Critics
http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/5478/

Internet African History Sourcebook: European Imperialism
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/africa/africasbook.asp

Internet Indian History Sourcebook: The Western Intrusion
http://www.fordham.edu/Halsall/india/indiasbook.asp#The%20Western%20Intrusion

Images of Colonial Africa
http://www2.wheaton.edu/bgc/archives/exhibits/collins/colins15.htm

Imperialism in Africa Quiz
http://www.quia.com/quiz/100920.html

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Medieval Africa 

Lesson 1: Daily Life

Wood figure from Dogon culture in Mali
http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/images/hb/hb_1985.422.2.jpg

Wood figure from Bamana culture of Mali
http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/images/hb/hb_1983.600a,b.jpg

Bracelets and necklace from the Jennenke culture
https://web.archive.org/web/20150906233428/http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/images/hb/hb_1998.480.6,8_1999.jpg
Link is to an archive

African Recipes
http://www.africa.upenn.edu/Miscellany/African_Recipes.html

Lesson 2: Great Traditions

Excerpts from the Sundiata
http://woodlawnschool.pbworks.com/f/Excerpts+from+Sundiata_+An+Epic+of+Old+Mali%281235%29.pdf (pdf file)


Background to the epic of Sundiata Keita
http://courses.wcupa.edu/jones/his311/notes/sundiata.htm

Lesson 3: Ibn Battuta: African Explorer

Ibn Battuta: Travels in Asia and Africa 1325-1354
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/1354-ibnbattuta.asp

Lesson 4: Trans-Saharan Travel and Trade

Images of the Catalan Atlas
http://web.archive.org/web/20030801171158/http://www.bnf.fr/enluminures/images/jpeg/i8_0000m.jpg
http://web.archive.org/web/20030608142041/http://www.bnf.fr/enluminures/images/jpeg/i8_000dd.jpg
  (Links are to an archive)

Ibn Battuta: Travels in Asia and Africa 1325–1354
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/1354-ibnbattuta.asp

Leo Africanus: Description of Timbuktu
http://www.learnnc.org/lp/editions/nchist-colonial/1982

The Catalan Atlas
http://web.archive.org/web/20000818213614/http://www.bnf.fr/enluminures/texte/atx2_07.htm
  (Link is to an archive)

Lesson 5: Medieval Cities—Great Zimbabwe and Timbuktu

Great Zimbabwe Ruins
http://www.encounter.co.za/article/81.html

Leo Africanus: Description of Timbuktu
http://public.wsu.edu/~wldciv/world_civ_reader/world_civ_reader_2/leo_africanus.html

Mesa Community College: Great Zimbabwe
http://web.mesacc.edu/dept/d10/asb/anthro2003/legacy/africa/zimbabwe/intro.html

Timbuktu: The Mythical Site
http://web.archive.org/web/20060717175400/http://whc.unesco.org/whreview/article7.html
  (Link is to an archive)

Related websites

Introduction to African History and Cultural Life
http://artsedge.kennedy-center.org/themes/africa.aspx

The Road to Timbuktu
http://www.pbs.org/wonders/fr_e5.htm

Background to the epic of Sundiata Keita
http://courses.wcupa.edu/jones/his311/notes/sundiata.htm

Smithsonian Natural History Web: African Voices
http://www.mnh.si.edu/africanvoices/

Mr. Bloch Salt Archive
http://www.salt.org.il/mission.html

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The Reformation 

Lesson 1: Background to the Reformation

Grace for Sale through Indulgences—Johann Tetzel
http://www.aloha.net/~mikesch/tetzel.htm

Copy of an Inexpensive Indulgence Sold by Tetzel
http://www.prca.org/standard_bearer/volume78/2001oct15_inexpensive_indulgencef.html

St. Peter's Basilica: Virtual Tour
http://www.ewtn.com/gallery/sp/sp1.htm

Vatican Museums Online
http://mv.vatican.va/3_EN/pages/MV_Home.html

Lesson 2: Martin Luther

The 95 Theses
http://www.luther.de/en/95thesen.html

Martin Luther—The Freedom of a Christian
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/luther-freedomchristian.asp

Painting of Martin Luther
http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/55.220.2

From Pen to Printing Press
http://web.archive.org/web/20120211075134/http://www.beyondbooks.com/leu11/2e.asp
Link is to an archive

Renaissance: What inspired this age of balance and order?
http://www.learner.org/interactives/renaissance/index.html

Lesson 3: The Pope and the Emperor Respond to Luther

Condeming the Errors of Martin Luther
http://www.papalencyclicals.net/Leo10/l10exdom.htm
http://www.ewtn.com/library/PAPALDOC/L10EXDOM.HTM

The Imperial Edict of Worms
http://www.crivoice.org/creededictworms.html

Charles V's Coronation Oath
http://pirate.shu.edu/~wisterro/cdi/charles_v_coronation.htm

Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emperor_Charles_V

Lesson 4: The Reformation in France and England

Calvin's Institutes of the Christian Religion
http://www.reformed.org/books/institutes/books/book4/bk4ch03.html

Henry IV and the Edict of Nantes
http://web.archive.org/web/20160215155811/http://www.french-at-a-touch.com/French_History/edict_of_nantes_%5B1589%5D.htm
Link is to an archive.


The Act of Supremacy (1534)
http://www.britainexpress.com/History/tudor/supremacy-henry-text.htm

Tudor History
http://www.tudorhistory.org/

Lesson 5: Impact of the Reformation

St. Ignatius Loyola: Spiritual Exercises
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/loyola-spirex.asp

Satire on Popery, 1555
http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/53.677.5

Christ Blessing, Surrounded by a Donor and His Family (Triptych of a Protestant Family), ca. 1575–80
http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/22.16.12

US Jesuit Conference
http://www.jesuit.org/

Related websites

Project Wittenberg
http://www.iclnet.org/pub/resources/text/wittenberg/wittenberg-home.html

Society for Reformation Research
http://www.reformationresearch.org/

The Meeter Center
http://www.calvin.edu/meeter/

Centre for Reformation and Renaissance Studies
http://crrs.ca/

Life and Times of Martin Luther
http://www.reformation.org/luther.html

Evangelical Lutheran Church in America
http://www.elca.org/

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The Scientific Revolution 

Lesson 1: The Scientific Method

René Descartes: Discourse on Method (1637)
https://www.gutenberg.org/files/59/59-h/59-h.htm

Francis Bacon—First Book of Aphorisms
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/bacon-aphor.asp

Voltaire (1694–1778): On Francis Bacon
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1778voltaire-bacon.asp

Lesson 2: Copernicus and a Revolution in Astronomy

Nicolas Copernicus: From The Revolutions of the Heavenly Bodies, 1543
http://www.fordham.edu/Halsall/mod/1543copernicus2.asp
https://web.archive.org/web/20140416234711/http://historyguide.org/intellect/copernicus.html
Link is to an archive.


Thomas Digges—A Perfit Description of the Cælestiall Orbes
https://eee.uci.edu/clients/bjbecker/ExploringtheCosmos/week4a.html

Brief biography of Nicolas Copernicus
http://www-gap.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Copernicus.html

Johannes Kepler
http://www-gap.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Kepler.html

Lesson 3: The Church Responds to Galileo

The Crime of Galileo: Indictment and Abjuration of 1633
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1630galileo.asp

Vatican admits Galileo correct
https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg13618460.600-vatican-admits-galileo-was-right-/

Allocution of the Holy Father John Paul II
http://ciret-transdisciplinarity.org/photogallery/VATICAN/JPII.pdf (pdf file)

Lesson 4: Newton and a Revolution in Physics

Isaac Newton: Optics
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/newton-optics.asp

Voltaire (1694–1778)—Letters on Newton from the Letters on the English or Lettres Philosophiques, c. 1778
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1778voltaire-newton.asp

Isaac Newton: The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/newton-princ.asp

Sir Isaac Newton: The Universal Law of Gravitation
http://csep10.phys.utk.edu/astr161/lect/history/newtongrav.html

Gravity Experiments
http://web.archive.org/web/20130216085332/http://education.usace.army.mil/clubhouse/science/list.cfm?Topic=gravity
Link is to an archive

Lesson 5: A Revolutionary in Biology

William Harvey (1578–1657)—On The Motion Of The Heart And Blood In Animals, 1628
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1628harvey-blood.asp

William Harvey Explains Blood Circulation
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/William_Harvey

About William Harvey
http://www.william-harvey.org/wm_harvey.htm

Related websites

Timeline Science
http://timelineindex.com/content/home/forced

History Topics: Mathematics
http://www-gap.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Indexes/Hist_Topics_alph.html

Museum of History and Science
http://www.mhs.ox.ac.uk/

ECHO: Exploring and Collecting History Online
http://echo.gmu.edu/

Newton's Principia
http://gravitee.tripod.com/toc.htm
  Select 'cancel' when prompted for username

Nicolaus Copernicus
http://www-gap.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Mathematicians/Copernicus.html

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The Age of Exploration 

Lesson 1: Ships and Navigation

Portuguese Barca
http://www.abc.se/~m10354/bld/img/paolo/lisbporx.jpg

Portuguese Caravel
http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Karavelle.png

Navigation Methods
http://www.heritage.nf.ca/exploration/navigate.html

Mariner's Astrolabe
http://www.nytimes.com/imagepages/2010/08/19/arts/MUSEUM.html

Expanding Horizons
http://www.ibiblio.org/expo/1492.exhibit/b-Mediterranean/exp.horiz.html

Terrestrial Globe with Armillary Sphere
http://www.ibiblio.org/expo/1492.exhibit/full-images/globe.gif

Lesson 2: Vasco da Gama

Modern History Sourcebook: Vasco da Gama: Round Africa to India, 1497–1498 CE
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1497degama.asp

The World Factbook: Map of India
https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/in.html

Vasco da Gama's route to India
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/tudors/vasco_da_gama_01.shtml
http://www.enchantedlearning.com/explorers/page/d/dagama.shtml

Portraits of Vasco da Gama
http://college.cengage.com/history/west/mosaic/chapter9/images/vasco_da_gama.jpg

Lesson 3: Christopher Columbus

Christopher Colombus—Extracts from Journal
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/columbus1.asp

Columbus's letter to the King and Queen of Spain, 1494
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/columbus2.asp

1492—An Ongoing Voyage
http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/1492/

Lesson 4: Ferdinand Magellan

Map of Magellan's Route
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Magellan%27s_voyage_EN.svg

Modern History Sourcebook—Ferdinand Magellan's Voyage Round the World, 1519–1522 CE
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1519magellan.asp

Magellan's portrait
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ferdinand_Magellan.jpg

Lesson 5: Maps

Expanding Horizons
http://www.ibiblio.org/expo/1492.exhibit/b-Mediterranean/exp.horiz.html

Map of the World: 1482
http://www.ibiblio.org/expo/1492.exhibit/full-images/world.gif

Waldseemüller Map
http://www.loc.gov/rr/geogmap/waldexh.html

Wytfliet World Map—"Vtrivsque Hemispherii Delineatio"
http://www.printsellers.com/images/Wytfliet%20World%20Large.jpg

Related websites

The Mariner's Museum
http://www.marinersmuseum.org/

ROG: National Maritime Museum
http://www.rmg.co.uk/royal-observatory/

Latitude: The Art and Science of Fifteenth-Century Navigation
http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~feegi/

1492: An Ongoing Voyage
http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/1492/

Navigation Methods
http://www.heritage.nf.ca/exploration/navigate.html

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Nineteenth-Century Nationalism 

Lesson 1: Defining Nationalism

Johann Gottlieb Fichte: To the German Nation, 1806
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1800humboldt-mexico.asp

J.V. Stalin, Marxism and the National Question
http://www.marx2mao.com/Stalin/MNQ12.html

ProEnglish: English Language Advocates
http://www.proenglish.org/

The English-Only Movement
http://www.answers.com/topic/english-only-movement

"English Only"
http://web.archive.org/web/20021127050758/http://archive.aclu.org/library/pbp6.html
  (Link is to an archive)

Lesson 2: Prince Klemens von Metternich

Prince Klemens von Metternich: Political Confession of Faith, 1820
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1820metternich.asp

The Congress of Vienna, November 1, 1814–June 8, 1815
http://www.victorianweb.org/history/forpol/vienna.html

Delegates to the Congress of Vienna of 1815
http://teacherweb.ftl.pinecrest.edu/snyderd/MWH/Projects/cov/Personalities.htm

Lesson 3: The Revolution of 1848

1848: Hugo's Description of the Barricades
http://www.mtholyoke.edu/courses/rschwart/hist255/la/1848barricade.html

Political Cartoon
http://web.archive.org/web/20011223220317/http://zaurak.tm.informatik.uni-frankfurt.de/1848/icons/Barikadenkaempfe-Berlin.jpg
  (Link is to an archive)

Documents of the Revolution of 1848 in France
http://history.hanover.edu/courses/excerpts/111f1848.html

The Mannheim Petition
http://www.keele.ac.uk/history/currentundergraduates/tltp/1848/DOCUMENT/2A2355_1.HTM
Page no longer available. A very rough translation of the document can be found here.

1848 Documents
http://facstaff.bloomu.edu/hickey/1848%20documents.htm

Encyclopedia of 1848 Revolutions
http://web.archive.org/web/20160306020746/https://www.ohio.edu/chastain/
Link is to an archive

Lesson 4: The Unification of Germany and Italy

Giuseppe Mazzini—Instructions for the Members of Young Italy
http://users.dickinson.edu/~rhyne/232/Four/Mazzini_instructions.html

Documents of German Unification, 1848–1871
http://www.fordham.edu/Halsall/mod/germanunification.asp

Map of the 19th Century Unification of Italy under Piemontese Rule, showing the Route taken by Garibaldi's soldiers
http://www.roangelo.net/valente/garibald.html

Europe After the Congress of Vienna, 1815
http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~wggerman/map/vienna1815.htm

Map of Germany, 1815 showing the members of German Confederation
http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~wggerman/map/germanconf.htm

Deutschland, Deutschland ueber Alles...
http://www.brandenburghistorica.com/page5.html

Das Lied der Deutschen
http://www.ingeb.org/Lieder/deutschl.html

Italy National Anthem
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Il_Canto_degli_Italiani#Lyrics

Lesson 5: Nationalism and Romanticism

J.M.W. Turner, Vale of Ashburnham
http://www.wikiart.org/en/william-turner/the-vale-of-ashburnham

Jean-Louis-André-Théodore Gericault, Evening: Landscape with an Aqueduct
http://www.metmuseum.org/Collections/search-the-collections/110000897

Eugène Delacroix, Christ Asleep during the Tempest
http://www.metmuseum.org/Collections/search-the-collections/110000616

Honoré Daumier, Rue Transnonain, le 15 Avril 1834
http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/20.23/

Lord Byron: "The Isles of Greece"
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/byron-greece.asp

Lord Byron: Selected Poetry
http://www.englishhistory.net/byron/poetry.html

Related websites

European Nationalism
http://www.historyteacher.net/APEuroCourse/WebLinks/WebLinks-EuropeanNationalism.htm

Nation Planet
http://web.inter.nl.net/users/Paul.Treanor/plana.html

The Nationalism Project
http://www.nationalismproject.org/

Nationalism Links: Sociological Research Online
http://www.socresonline.org.uk/2/1/natlinks.html

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The Rise & Fall of Soviet Communism 

Lesson 1: The Communist Manifesto

Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels: The Communist Manifesto (1848)
https://web.archive.org/web/20160121180233/http://public.wsu.edu/~brians/world_civ/worldcivreader/world_civ_reader_2/marx.html
Link is to an archive

V.I. Lenin: Our Programme, 1899
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1899lenin-program.asp

Lesson 2: The Russian Revolution

The Tasks of the Proletariat in the Present Revolution
http://www.marxists.org/archive/lenin/works/1917/apr/04.htm

Primary Documents: Lenin's Call to Power, 24 October 1917
http://www.firstworldwar.com/source/calltopower.htm

Lenin's ordering of the establishment of an "Extraordinary Commission to Fight Counter-Revolution"
http://www.dur.ac.uk/a.k.harrington/cheka.html

Lesson 3: Stalinism and the Totalitarian State

Joseph V. Stalin: On the Industrialization of Russia
http://web.archive.org/web/20080515023349/http://artsci.shu.edu/reesp/documents/Stalin--industrialization.htm
  (Link is to an archive)

Letter to Bolshevik
http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/archives/d2presid.html

Hymn to Stalin
http://www.fordham.edu/Halsall/mod/stalin-worship.asp

Lesson 4: Failure of the Soviet System

Sakharov's Telegram
http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/archives/ac2sakh.html

Note by the Procurator-General of the USSR N Trubin on Events in Novocherkassk, June 1962
http://www.korolevperevody.co.uk/novocherkassk.html

Petition on the Legality of the Trial of Ginzburg, Galanskov, Dobrovol'skii and Lashkova
http://teacher.sduhsd.net/tpsocialsciences/world_history/cold_war/dissidents.htm

Lesson 5: Reform and Collapse

Perestroika: As Defined by the Communist Party Plenum of Jan 1987
http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/archives/pere.html

Resolution: Soviet Unity for Leninism and Communist Ideas
http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/archives/ab2unity.html

Excerpts of Address by Mikhail Gorbachev: 43rd U.N. General Assembly Session, December 7, 1988
http://web.archive.org/web/20040208023939/http://edition.cnn.com/SPECIALS/cold.war/episodes/23/documents/gorbachev/
  (Link is to an archive)

Related websites

Marxist Internet Archive
http://www.marxists.org/

The Museum of Communism
http://econfaculty.gmu.edu/bcaplan/museum/musframe.htm

The Russian Revolution: A Gallery Of Photos
http://www.nevsky88.com/SaintPetersburg/Revolution/default.asp

From Marx to Mao
http://www.marx2mao.com/

Mikhail Gorbachev
http://web.archive.org/web/20080508221825/http://www.mikhailgorbachev.org/
  Page no longer available

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The United Nations 

Lesson 1: The League of Nations

League of Nations Charter
http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/leagcov.asp

Henry Cabot Lodge: Reservations with Regard to the Treaty
http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/disp_textbook.cfm?smtID=3&psid=3909

Telegram from the Japanese Minister for Foreign Affairs to the Secretary- General of the League of Nations, Regarding Japan's Withdrawal from the League of Nations, March 27, 1933
http://web.archive.org/web/20010501142709/http://www.unog.ch/frames/library/archives/lon/library/Docs/kjap-out.html
  (Link is to an archive)

Lesson 2: Foundations of the UN

The Atlantic Charter
http://avalon.law.yale.edu/wwii/atlantic.asp

Dumbarton Oaks Agreement
http://www.ibiblio.org/pha/policy/1944/441007a.html

The Terms of Power
http://chinesejil.oxfordjournals.org/content/5/2/323.full


Declaration by United Nations: Subscribing to the Principles of the Atlantic Charter, January 1, 1942
http://www.ibiblio.org/pha/policy/1942/420101a.html

Lesson 3: Human Rights and the Onset of the Cold War

Eleanor Roosevelt: The Struggle for Human Rights
http://www.edchange.org/multicultural/speeches/eleanor_roosevelt_rights.html

UN General Assembly, 183rd Plenary Meeting, December 10, 1948
http://www.socialstudies.com/pdf/NL481223.pdf (pdf file)

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights
http://www.un.org/en/documents/udhr/index.shtml

The UN Charter
http://www.un.org/en/documents/charter/index.shtml

Eleanor Roosevelt: Adoption of the Declaration of Human Rights
http://www.edchange.org/multicultural/speeches/eleanor_roosevelt_adoption.html

Lesson 4: Korea: An Early Test for the UN

UN Resolution of 27 June 1950
http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=S/RES/83(1950)

Report of The United Nations Commission on Korea, 1950
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1950-korea-un1.html

Andrei A. Gromyko: On American Intervention In Korea, 1950
http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1950-gromyko-korea.html

Korea, the forgotten war
https://web.archive.org/web/20160609051843/http://www.sptimes.com/2003/07/20/Korea/Korea__the_forgotten_.shtml
Link is to an archive

Lesson 5: UN Peacekeeping Forces

Lester Bowles Pearson, Nobel Lecture, December 11, 1957
http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1957/pearson-lecture.html

Javier Pérez de Cuéllar, Nobel Lecture, January 9,1989
http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1988/un-lecture.html

UNMEE Kenyan Peacekeeper in ASSAB Team Site, May 2001
http://www.unmultimedia.org/s/photo/detail/365/0036586.html

The Power of Persuasion Backed by Force
http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=Power_of_persuasion

United Nations Peacekeeping
http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/

Related websites

The United Nations
http://www.un.org/en/index.shtml

The League of Nations and the United Nations
http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/worldwars/wwone/league_nations_01.shtml

United Nations Peacekeeping
http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/

Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights
http://www.ohchr.org/EN/Pages/WelcomePage.aspx

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Last Updated September 6th, 2017.